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ambitious
Recover a broken array using partial information in another array.
Programming language:

Bob once had an array A with N elements. Each element was a positive integer not exceeding M.

Bob wrote a program to find an array B, defined as follows. For every index J, let's find the biggest index K such that K < J and A[K] < A[J]. Then set B[J] = A[K]. If there is no such index K, then set B[J] = 0. Intuitively, the J-th element of B contains the last value smaller than A[J] that appears before it, or 0 if there is no such element.

For example, let A = [2, 5, 3, 7, 9, 6]. Then B = [0, 2, 2, 3, 7, 3]. For instance, B[5] = 3, as A[5] is 6 and the last value before A[5] smaller than 6 is 3.

Bob computed an array B and then mistakenly deleted A. He now intends to find every valid array A from which his program would produce B. Count the number of such arrays A. Since the answer could be very big, return it modulo 109+7.

Write a function:

class Solution { public int solution(int[] B, int M); }

that, given an integer M and an array B with N integers, returns the remainder from the division by 109+7 of the number of valid arrays A from which Bob would get B. You can assume that there is at least one such array.

For example, given: M = 4, B = [0, 2, 2] the function should return 3. The possible removed arrays A were [2, 3, 3], [2, 4, 3] and [2, 4, 4].

For the following data: M = 10, B = [0, 3, 5, 6] the function should return 4, as the possible arrays A were [3, 5, 6, 7], [3, 5, 6, 8], [3, 5, 6, 9] and [3, 5, 6, 10].

For the following data: M = 105, B = [0, 0] there are 5000050000 possible arrays (the first element in array A can be anything in the range 1..105 and the second element can be either equal or smaller), so the function should return 49965 (as we are taking modulo 109+7).

Write an efficient algorithm for the following assumptions:

  • N is an integer within the range [1..100,000];
  • M is an integer within the range [1..1,000,000,000];
  • each element of array B is an integer within the range [0..M];
  • there exists at least one valid array A from which Bob would get array B.
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